Microwave Instruments. The surveying equipment functions with the help of micro waves come under this category. They need only to be placed in one area and faced toward a hard surface of another area to correctly gauge a distance. The instruments need only 12 to 24 V batteries. 8. Infrared Wave Instruments. Ultrasonic Distance Measurement Project using Arduino. radio links, without any loss of information. The total station is the combination of electronic theodolite and electronic distant measurement equipment which can show the angles, elevation and distance. The laser tape measure is one of the newest types, offering many advantages compared with older, more traditional models. EDM is commonly carried out with digital instruments called theodolites . Measures horizontal and vertical angles and slope distance from which horizontal distance is calculated. It stntes that any current, carrying coil placed in a magnetic field experiences a force, which is proportional to the, magnitude of current passing through the coil. Electronic circuits can detect and amplify very weak signals and can measure the, 7. With a single touch the instrument displays the distance on the screen after measures the five modulation frequencies of infrared wave signal. 1. Ultrasonic Distance Measurement is a useful tool in various applications lately. Target object picks up the sound waves 3. An electronic digital theodolite can be combined with an electronic distance measurement instrument. Normally these used to measure long distances within 100km with their frequency range. Distance= Velocity X time. But, for any, measurement, a well defined set of standards and calibration units is essential. In these instrument an accuracy of + or – 10mm per km can be obtained. Pros: Compact; Fast / Time Saver; System memory—stores previous measurements ; One man job 1. 3. a) Using shunt resistance, d.c. current can be measured. Advantages and disadvantages of laser rangefinders and ultrasonic rangefinders result directly of the type of waves they use to measure distances. The voltmeter measures the, voltage across the two points of a circuit or a voltage across a circuit component. The slope distances can then be instantly converted to horizontal and vertical components. It is the most famous software for surveying purposes. Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani - Hyderabad, EEE-III-ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICMEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUME [10EE35]-ASSIGNMENT, EEE-III-ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICMEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUME [10EE35]-SOLUTION, EEE-V-LINEAR ICS AND APPLICATIONS [10EE56]-SOLUTION, ece-iii-electronic-instrumentation-10it35-notes, EEE-V-MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP [10AL51]-SOLUTION, EEE-III-NETWORK ANALYSIS [10ES34]-ASSIGNMENT, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani - Hyderabad • EE 35, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani - Hyderabad • EEE 101, GITAM Centre for Distance Learning • ECE 111, ECE-III-ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION [10IT35]-ASSIGNMENT, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani - Hyderabad • EEE 455, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani - Hyderabad • ECE 101, Copyright © 2021. Visible Light Wave Instruments. Here primary equipment is used as light wave emitting instrument and corner cube prisms are used as reflectors. Total Station Surveying instrument combining Electronic Distance Measurement Equipment (EDME) with a digital theodolite and electronic data recording. Electronic Distance Measuring Method – EDM, Linear measurement – Types, instruments and common errors. The main advantage with laser tape measures is the speed at which they work. 2.1.2. Advantages of Electronic Measurement The advantages of an electronic, The advantages of an electronic measurement are, 1. Total station consists of an electronic theodolite, an electronic distance measuring device (EDM) and a micro processor having a memory unit.   Privacy 3. Such instruments were invented as early as 1950 in South Africa by Dr. T.L. The, Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation. The total travel time is measured by the electronic timing circuit. These instruments make use of microwaves. It is also integrated with microprocessor, electronic data collector and storage system. The modern development in science and. Wadley ... 2. The distance measurement is obtained using electro-optical range finders. Tellurometer uses the above mentioned technique, the phase comparison of wave to determine the distance. 7. Electronic … Tellurometers can be used in day as well as in … This series resistance is called a, function of the multiplier is to limit the current through the basic meter so that the meter, current does not exceed the full scale deflection value. It is the software.it is used for the job site.   Terms. How To Use A Laser Distance Measure . The main difference in all these technologies is the type of pulse that is used for measurement. Many measurements can be carried either simultaneously or in rapid succession. Compact in size and more reliable in operation. Greater flexibility. The plus points of this type instruments are, no signal loss, cheap instrument, one main instrument is enough and a very high accuracy of = or – 0.2mm to 1mm per km. B this method a maximum distance of 80 to 100km can be measured with an error correction of + or – 5 to 15 mm per km. NOTES : CHARACTERISTIC OF EDM 8.3.1 Different Wavelength Bands Used by EDM Usually, EDM uses three different wavelength bands and their characteristics are: Microwave Systems Range up to 150 km Wavelength 3 cm Not limited to line of sight Unaffected by visibility Light Wave Theodolites have many advantages when compared to other leveling instruments: Greater accuracy. Two Tellurometers are required to measure distances of up to 100 kilometers. 2. Hence, if atmospheric temperature and pressure is applied, the microprocessor applies suitable correction to the measurements. The electronic distance measuring equipment is differentiated into three types as, microwave instrument, infra red equipment and light wave equipment. The ultrasonic sensor emits high-frequency sound waves towards the target object 2. D'Arsonval movement and basic meter is called D'Arsonval galvanometer. Another big advantage of Arduino is its library of examples present inside the software of Arduino. The resistance is required to be connected in series with the basic, meter to use it as a voltmeter. Top 6 advantages and disadvantages of total station. Course Hero, Inc. Measuring and laying out angles and straight lines; Aligning wood frame walls; Forming panels; Plumbing a column or building corner; Advantages of Using a Theodolite. Although these type of instrument used to measure up to a maximum distance of 3 – 5km, many civil engineering works limited to this distance. Computation of horizontal distances along with X, Y, Z coordinates is done by the instrument called Microprocessor. Make use of microwaves. This powerful grouping of features gives surveyors the ability to measure vertical … Distance measuring equipment (DME) is a radio navigation technology that measures the slant range (distance) between an aircraft and a ground station by timing the propagation delay of radio signals in the frequency band between 960 and 1215 megahertz (MHz). It has higher sensing distance (in centimeters and inches) compare to inductive/capacitive proximity sensor types. 6. The Tellurometer is an electronic distance measurement device that uses high frequency radio waves or microwaves. Distomats and electronic tacheometer or total station instruments falls under this category. An electronic digital theodolite automatically reads horizontal and vertical angles, eliminating the manual reading of scales on graduated circles, removing the possibility of human error. The measuring range of light wave instruments is lesser that that of microwave instruments as because of the less transmitting power of light wave instruments. By using this instrument it is possible to find out the coordinates of a reflector adjusting the cross hair of the instrument and at the same time measuring the vertical angles, horizontal angles, and slope distances. The one and only main consideration in this type is the alignment of equipment as the reflected wave travel parallel to the emitted wave which means the divergence of emitted wave is less than that of one degree. EDM instruments are highly reliable and convenient pieces of surveying equipment and can be used to measure distances of up to 100 kilometers. The light wave instrument use visible or simply light which means wave lengths that are visible to human eyes to measure the distance. It is formed from a combination of an Electronic distance measuring device and an electronic theodolite. Higher sensitivity, low power consumption and a higher degree of reliability are the, important features of electronic instruments and measurements. A basic d.c. meter uses a motoring principle for its operation. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) is a fundamental feature of modern surveying Total Stations. technology are totally based on computers. characteristics of an instrument and different calibration standards. Types of Electronic Distance Measurement Instrument. The, b) Using a thermocouple type meter radio frequency (RF) voltage or current can be, c) Using a thermistor in a resistive bridge network, expanded scale for power line voltage, The basic d.c. voltmeter is nothing but a permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) 0', Arsonval galvanometer. Advantages of Electronic Measurement The advantages of an electronic measurement are 1. Here the electronic distance measuring equipment and a reflector are necessary to carry out the survey. Electronic distance measurement (EDM) is a method of determining the length between two points using electromagnetic waves. Electrical signal can amplified, multiplexed, filtered and measured easily. Distance measurements can be made in two modes: [1] with a reflector using an Infrared or visible laser electromagnetic wave and phase measurement or [2] ‘reflectorless’ using a … This sensor is not affected due to atmospheric dust, rain, snow etc. 5. This movement of coil is called. Following are the benefits or advantages of Electrical Instruments: Non-contact measurements are possible. Total station is a surveying equipment combination of Electromagnetic Distance Measuring Instrumentand electronic theodolite. Following are the advantages of Ultrasonic sensor: It has sensing capability to sense all the material types. The very first instrument was discovered in South Africa by Col. Harry and developed by Dr. T. L. Wadley in 1950’s and the equipment named as Tellurometer. 3. Benefits or advantages of Electrical Instruments. Then the following equation used to measure the distance, This preview shows page 29 - 31 out of 81 pages. Sound waves are then bounced off and reflected back towards the ultrasonic sensor 4. Advantages & Disadvantages of Level Measurement Systems like ultrasonic level transmitters, float level measurement, Displacer level instruments, Pressure based level measurement. The instrument can be used to measure horizontal and vertical angles as well as sloping distance of object to the instrument. The measurement can easily be obtained in or converted into digital form for automatic, 4 The measured signals can be transmitted over long distances with the help of cables or. Micro wave instrument. Most of the quantities can be converted by transducers into the electrical or electronic, 2. This device has many advantages, including the speed it obtains and processes information and you need fewer instruments to make the same readings. Then the distance is measured with the help of time taken for the above process – time taken by the wave for the emission and return. At a distance or depending on local terrain DME transmissions can contain extraneous signals from bouncing off of other objects, atmospherics or other multipath interference with radio reception which introduces phase errors into the transmission which can cause extraneous pulses into the input data know as "fruit". 1. The surveying equipment functions with the help of micro waves come under this category. Sieve Analysis – Particle size analysis procedure, Lapping length of reinforcement steel bars, Basic things you should know about Bill Of Quantity (BOQ), Tendering methods, Procedures in Construction. The wave emitted from the electronic distance measuring equipment reaches the reflector and return back to the electronic distance measuring equipment. The number of gratings involved in a measurement is determined from whole-circle electronic scanning. To simplify the procedures to obtain accuracy in surveying, the electronic distance measuring method was introduced. The time it took for the sound wave to return is used as the measurement of the distance bet… An electrical or electronic signal can be amplified, filtered, multiplexed, sampled and, 3. These instruments consume less power. Internal magnifying optical system. A total station is a combination of an electronic theodolite, an electronic distance measuring device (EDM) and a micro processor with memory unit. c) Using a battery and resistive network, resistance can be measured. is d.c. millivoltmeter, voltmeter or kilovoltmeter. The instrument. In distomat, the instrument should be focused to the reflector distomat to receive, monitor and reflect back the wave signal. Line-of-visibility between the aircraft and ground station is required. Following are the advantages of electrical or electronic instrumentation. For example if you want to measure voltage using ATmega8 micro-controller and want to display the output on computer screen then you have to go through the whole process. An electrical or electronic signal can be amplified, filtered, multiplexed, sampled and measured. The surveying equipment functions with the help of modulated infra-red waves come under this category. 2.1.5. Circle imperfections are thus compensated for, permitting higher precision with only one circle setting. Laser Measuring Device . The instrument is, Electrical and Electronic Measurements& Instrumentation, a) Using a rectifier, a.c. voltages can be measured, at power and audio frequencies. Many ETIs have coaxial electronic and optical systems, thus Laser tape measurers allow for easy and individual measuring. Such instruments were invented as early as 1950 in South Africa by Dr. T.L Wadley and named theam as Tellurometers. 2.1.4. The present EDM instruments have the following features, absolute circle reading, laser plummet, endless drives, 30 x magnifications, high resolution LCD display, Upload and transfer data, data editing and exchange and connectivity to 3rd party devices. Micro wave signals are radiated from primary source equipment to the reflector and then the reflector amplifies the micro wave signals to send them back to the primary source equipment in exact phase as they emitted from. This, chapter provides an introduction to different types of errors in measurement, the. Here the distance is measured with the help of electro-magnetic waves such as micro wave, infra red wave and other similar waves. In this method two equipment and two operators needed to carry out the procedure. I’ll explain this advantage using an example of voltage measurement . Distance is usually no more than 100 ft. Types of Estimate – Types of estimates that prepared on various stages of a project. 2.1.1. Electronic measurement makes possible to build analog and digital signals. Most of the quantities can be converted by transducers into the electrical or electronic signals. It can work in any adverse conditions. 2. This lets the combined machine automatically record angles and slope distance from just one set-up. 3. They are light and highly portable. The use of infrared instrument is high in civil engineering surveying as they are inexpensive and more accurate when compare to the rest. The distance to the surface of the liquid is obtained by dividing the travel time by twice the wave’s speed. Most all total stations on the market today provide surveyors with an electronic distance measuring device (EDM), a digital theodolite and lots of computing horsepower and memory. Geodimeter falls under this type of instrument. 2.1.3. It can be used in various applications such as positioning, locating, dimensioning, selecting, level measurement, controlling and profiling. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. The instrument is d.c. b) Using series resistance called multiplier, d.c. voltage can be measured. The electronic distance measuring equipment is differentiated into three types as, microwave instrument, infra red equipment and light wave equipment. Different physical quantities can be converted into electrical signal by transducers. Even if the rate determining distance is closely dependent on the propagation speed of the waves – electromagnetic speed of about 300 000 km/s (speed of light) and ultrasound at about 343 m/s (speed of sound in air). When compare to the rest this method is more cheap when compare the value of instruments. Various software are available in the market which can be use… Normally these used to measure long distances within 100km with their frequency range. 6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital Multimeter Jan 14, 2017 Sep 21, 2016 by Editor in Chief Also known as Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter (VOM), a multimeter is an electrical instrument that is used to measure circuit parameters, such as resistance, current and voltage. 8.9 Field Procedure of Electronic Distance Measurement 8.10 Geometry of Electronic Distance Measurements 8.11 EDM without Reflecting Prisms (Reflector Less Measurements) Measure The slope measurement is accomplished by simply pressing the measure button The displays are either liquid crystal (LCD) or light emitting diode (LED) The measurements is shown in two decimals of a foot or three decimals of a meter EDM with built in calculators can now be used to compute horizontal and vertical distances, coordinate, atmosphiric,curveture and prism constant … To make a simple distance measurement using a laser measure the user must place the instrument at one end of the line that is to be measured and aim the laser beam at a solid target such as a wall or cabinet. 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