At this place [Tepeyac], [the Indians] had a temple dedicated to the mother of the gods, whom they called Tonantzin, which means Our Mother. He died at the age of ninety years, sixty-one of which had been devoted to missionary labor and research. The native peoples were believed to have dignity and merited respect as human beings. This rustic-style guest house is located in Sahagun's center, right in the Camino de Santiago Pilgrimage Route, and 4.3 mi from Grajal Castle. Anderson, "Sahagún: Career and Character" in Bernardino de Sahagún, H. B. Nicholson, "Fray Bernardino De Sahagún: A Spanish Missionary in New Spain, 1529-1590," in, David A. Boruchoff, “Sahagún and the Theology of Missionary Work,” in. "[1][2] He also contributed to the description of the Aztec language Nahuatl. And it is something that should be remedied, for the correct [native] name of the Mother of God, Holy Mary, is not Tonantzin, but Dios inantzin. Sahagún, Bernardino de 1499-1590. Some passages in his writings appear to be transcriptions of informants' statements about religious beliefs, society or nature. De una copia de la Historia de Sahagún, que se encontraba en el convento de San Francisco de Tolosa, España, proceden las ediciones que hicieron Carlos María de Bustamante (3 vols., 1825-1839), Irineo Paz (4 vols., 1890-1895) y Joaquín Ramírez Cabañas (5 vols., 1938). [41] In his introduction ("To the reader") to Book 12 of the Historia General, Sahagún claimed the history of the conquest was a linguistic tool so that friars would know the language of warfare and weapons. In addition, millions of indigenous people died from repeated epidemics, as they had no immunity to Eurasian diseases. In particular, he outlined a philosophical anthropology that reflects a Franciscan spirit. [15] Besides the “Historia”, the “Arte” and the “Diccionario” (the last in Aztec, Spanish, and Latin), he was the author of a number of lesser works, mostly religious and in the Aztec language, among which may be noted a volume of sermons; an explanation of the Epistles and Gospels of the Mass; a history of the coming of the first Franciscans to Mexico, in two volumes; a Christian psalmody in Aztec, for the use of the neophytes in church (Mexico, 1583-84), and a catechism in the same language. The Crown replaced the religious orders with secular clergy, giving friars a much smaller role in the Catholic life of the colony. Ewert Cousins, "Francis of Assisi and Bonaventure: Mysticism and Theological Interpretation," in, Alfredo Lopez-Austin. Sahagún, Bernardino de (c. 1499/1500–1590)Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan missionary, arrived in New Spain in 1529 and began a prolific career of evangelization of the Nahua peoples to Christianity. The decades after the Spanish conquest witnessed a dramatic transformation of indigenous culture, a transformation with a religious dimension that contributed to the creation of Mexican culture. El Ruedo II Hostal. Historia general de las cosas de nueva España (General history of the things of New Spain) is an encyclopedic work about the people and culture of central Mexico compiled by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún (1499–1590), a Franciscan missionary who arrived in Mexico in 1529, eight years after completion of the Spanish conquest by Hernan Cortés. Born Bernardino de Rivera in Sahagún, Spain, he was trained in Latin, history, philosophy, and theology at the University of Salamanca and became a Franciscan around 1527. In Sahagún's collaborative approach, in which he consistently gave credit to his collaborators, especially Antonio Valeriano, the Franciscan value of community is expressed.[34]. Native leaders were recruited to teach about native history and traditions, leading to controversy among colonial officials who were concerned with controlling the indigenous populations. Entering the order he followed the Franciscan custom of changing his family name for the name of his birth town, becoming Bernardino de Sahagún. Nicholson, "Fray Bernardino De Sahagún: A Spanish Missionary in New Spain, 1529-1590." João Gonzalez estudou teologia na Universidade de Salamanca. Cline, "Revisionist Conquest History: Sahagún's Book XII," in. [7] These religious orders established the Catholic Church in colonial New Spain, and directed it during most of the 16th century. [6] Thanks to his own academic and religious reputation, Sahagún was recruited in 1529 to join the missionary effort in New Spain. This later served as a base for his own research activities, as he recruited former students to work with him. [2] He was probably ordained around 1527. 368 a 965) del libro XI. He compared the answers obtained from his various sources. Like DNA strings of mestizaje, his practice metaphorically represent contradiction- indian/conqueror, violence/unity, and an Many still practiced their pre-European contact religious rituals and maintained their ancestral beliefs, much as they had for hundreds or thousands of years, while also participating in Catholic worship. During this period, the university at Salamanca was strongly influenced by Erasmus, and was a center for Spanish Franciscan intellectual life. Some of his final writings express feelings of despair. $39.97 $ 39 97. 1982, Guadalajara, Mexico) is a multi-disciplinary that confronts the palpable inescapability of race and transforms art into an act of cultural reclamation. People from both the Spanish and indigenous cultures held a wide range of opinions and views about what was happening in this transformation. After a translation mistake, it was given the name Historia general de las Cosas de Nueva España. [42] Since compiling a history of the conquest from the point of view of the defeated Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolcan could be controversial for the Spanish crown, Sahagún may have been prudent in trying to shape how the history was perceived. The priest had a free hand to conduct his investigations. [16] An "herbal" is a catalog of plants and their uses, including descriptions and their medicinal applications. A scholarly community of historians, anthropologists, art historians, and linguists has been investigating Sahagun's work, its subtleties and mysteries, for more than 200 years. He was most exact in the duties of his order, never missing Matins, even in his old age. Sahagún's work was originally conducted only in Nahuatl. There were massive waves of indigenous peoples converting to Catholicism, as measured by hundreds of thousands of baptisms in massive evangelization centers set up by the friars.[12]. From the Catholic Encyclopedia. His assistants spoke three languages (Nahuatl, Latin and Spanish). Lara, City, Temple, Stage: Eschatological Architecture and Liturgical Theatrics in New Spain. In addition to his unequalled mastery of the Mexican language, it was said of him that he excelled in all the sciences. [1], Sahagún has been described as a missionary, ethnographer, linguist, folklorist, Renaissance humanist, historian and pro-indigenous. I. Fr. They answered me that they would talk the matter over and give their answer on another day; and with this they took their departure. The Franciscans were then particularly hostile to this cult because of its potential for idolatrous practice, as it conflated the Virgin Mary with an ancient goddess. The #1 Best Value of 13 places to stay in Sahagun. Pool . [14] He began informal studies of indigenous peoples, their beliefs, and religious practices. found: Catholic Encyclopedia, Feb. 9, 2015 (Bernardino de Sahagún; Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagún, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, 23 Oct., 1590. He edited his prior work. [14] During this period, Franciscans who affirmed the full humanity and capacity of indigenous people were perceived as suspect by colonial officials and the Dominican Order. It documents the culture, religious cosmology (worldview), ritual practices, society, economics, and history of the Aztec people, and in Book 12 gives an account of the conquest of Mexico from the Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco point of view. Show Prices . In over sixty years as college professor he rested not for a day “teaching civilization and good customs, reading, writing, grammar, music, and other things in the service of God and the state”. [31] The pro-indigenous approach of the Franciscan missionaries in New Spain is consistent with the philosophy of Franciscan John Duns Scotus. It appears to be a Satanic invention to cloak idolatry under the confusion of this name, Tonantzin.[37]. To fend off suspicion and criticism, he translated sections of it into Spanish, submitted it to some fellow Franciscans for their review, and sent it to the King of Spain with some Friars returning home. A. Sahagún and His Works" by Luis Nicolau D'Olwer and Howard F. Cline. Among his works in Nahuatl was a translation of the Psalms and a catechism. Étudiant à l'université de Salamanque, il entra en religion au couvent des Franciscains réformés et partit comme missionnaire The friars were, for the most part, deeply disturbed by the conquistadores' abuse of the native peoples. [2] Between 1553 and 1555 he interviewed indigenous leaders in order to gain their perspective on the Conquest of Mexico. Show Prices. The evangelization of New Spain was led by Franciscan, Dominican and Augustinian friars. S.L. Scotus absorbed the intuitive insights of St. Francis of Assisi and his devotion to Jesus Christ as a human being, and expressed them in a broader vision of humanity. It became a vehicle for evangelization of students, as well as the recruiting and training of native men to the Catholic clergy; it was a center for the study of native languages, especially Nahuatl. [23], From his early research, Sahagún wrote the text known as Primeros Memoriales. Charles E. Dibble (1909-2002) was an anthropologist, linguist, and scholar specializing in Mesoamerican cultures. In this section, Sahagún denounces the association of the Virgin of Guadalupe with a pagan Meso-American deity. In the meantime a preliminary manuscript draft had been carried to Spain, where it became known to Ovando, president of the Council of the Indies, on whose request the Franciscan delegate-general directed Father Sahagún to make a complete Spanish translation, furnishing all necessary assistance. [21] He likely composed his Psalmodia Christiana in Tepepolco when he was gathering material for the Primeros Memoriales. With these appointed principal men, including the four instructed in grammar, I talked many days during about two years, following the order of the minute I had already made out. The friars had disagreements over how best to approach this problem, as well as disagreements about their mission, and how to determine success. During the period in which Sahagún conducted his research, the conquering Spaniards were greatly outnumbered by the conquered Aztecs, and were concerned about the threat of a native uprising. On all the subjects on which we conferred they gave me pictures—which were the writings anciently in use among them—and these the grammarians interpreted to me in their language, writing the interpretation at the foot of the picture.”. Primeros Memoriales, by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, is a valuable document providing great understanding and knowledge of provincial Mesoamerican civilization. Franciscans newly arrived in the colony did not share the earlier Franciscans' faith and zeal about the capacity of the Indians. [44], At the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, Disillusionment with the "spiritual conquest". Renfe Viajeros operates a train from Santiago De Compostela to Sahagun once daily. It was there that he joined the Order of Friars Minor or Franciscans. In 1547, he collected and recorded huehuetlatolli, Aztec formal orations given by elders for moral instruction, education of youth, and cultural construction of meaning. In Sahagún we have the ideal missionary priest and scholar. The use of the Nahuatl Bible was banned, reflecting the broader global retrenchment of Catholicism under the Council of Trent. [14] In 1585 he wrote a revision of the conquest narrative, published as Book 12 of the Florentine Codex, one of his last works before his death in 1590. Alternatively, you can take a bus from Santiago de Compostela to Sahagún via Leon in around 8h. Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagún, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, 23 Oct., 1590.He studied at the convent of Salamanca where he took the vows of the order, and in 1529 was sent out to Mexico, being one of the earliest missionaries assigned to that country, where he labored until his death more than sixty years later. He was assigned to the college of Santa Cruz in Tlaltelolco, near the City of Mexico, and took up the work of preaching, conversion, and the instruction of the native youth in Spanish and Latin, science, music, and religion, while by close study and years of daily practice he himself acquired such mastery of the Aztec language as has never since been attained by any other student. [A]s regards the Catholic Faith, [Mexico] is a sterile land and very laborious to cultivate, where the Catholic Faith has very shallow roots, and with much labor little fruit is produced, and from little cause that which is planted and cultivated withers. In this process, the native artists added many references to their customs and beliefs: flowers, birds or geometric symbols. Grupo Palacio de Hierro, S.A.B. The herbal and the map show the influence of both the Spanish and the Aztec cultures, and by their structure and style convey the blending of these cultures. He learned Nahuatl and spent more than 50 years in the study of Aztec beliefs, culture and history. Flights ... Hotel Puerta de Sahagun. Sahagún, BERNARDINO DE, missionary and Aztec archaeologist, b. at Sahagún, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, October 23, 1590.He studied at the convent of Salamanca, where he took the vows of the order, and in 1529 was sent out to Mexico, being one of the earliest missionaries assigned to that country, where he labored until his death more than sixty years later. An account, in both Spanish and Nahúatl, of the disputation that these Franciscan friars held in Tenochtitlan soon after their arrival was made by Sahagún in 1564, in order to provide a model for future missionaries. It is not known for certain where the beginning of this Tonantzin may have originated, but this we know for certain, that, from its first usage, the word means that ancient Tonantzin. [39] He revised the account in 1585 in important ways, adding passages praising the Spanish, especially the conqueror Hernan Cortés, rather than adhering to the indigenous viewpoint. The Florentine Codex also known as Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España is one of the most important sources for the … Some colonial authorities perceived his writings as potentially dangerous, since they lent credibility to native voices and perspectives. "Having discussed the springs, waters, and mountains, this seemed to me to be the opportune place to discuss the principal idolatries which were practiced and are still practiced in the waters and mountains."[36]. Bernardino De Sahagun's Psalmodia Christiana (Christian Psalmody) Feb 1, 1993. by Bernardino De Sahagun , Arthur J. O. Anderson Hardcover. Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagún, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, 23 Oct., 1590. At his funeral, which was attended by all the religious and students of the city, the Indians also attended, shedding tears. He spent much time with the indigenous people in remote rural villages, as a Catholic priest, teacher, and missionary. Sahagún taught Latin and other subjects during its initial years. Apéndice: León, Nicolás. 149 reviews #2 of 2 hotels in Sahagun. The friars had to be careful in pursuing and defining their interactions with indigenous people. The friars employed a large number of natives for the construction of churches and monasteries, not only for the construction itself, but also as artists, painters and sculptors, and their works were used for decoration and evangelization. [14] Other friars taught grammar, history, religion, scripture, and philosophy. The work thus undertaken occupied some seven years, in collaboration with the best native authorities, and was expanded into a history and description of the Aztec people and civilization in twelve manuscript books, together with a grammar (Arte) and dictionary of the language. [1]Vida. Los Balcones del Camino. A viceroy (like a governor) ruled New Spain on behalf of the King of Spain. They were astonished that such new peoples existed and believed that preaching to them would bring about the return of Christ and the end of time, a set of beliefs called millenarianism. Born in Sahagún, Spain, in 1499, he journeyed to New Spain in 1529, and spent more than 50 years in the study of Aztec beliefs, culture and history. 549 reviews. São João de Sahagún ou João de São Facundo, nascido Juan Gonzalez de Castrillo Martinez de Sahagun y Cea, (Vila de San Facundo, actual Sahagún, 1419 — Salamanca, 11 de Junho de 1479) foi um sacerdote, teólogo, prior de um convento da Ordem de Santo Agostinho e santo da Igreja Católica. [15] Scholars have explained these roles as emerging from his identity as a missionary priest,[12] a participant in the Spanish evangelical fervor for converting newly encountered peoples,[31] and as a part of the broader Franciscan millenarian project.[9]. In Catholic Spain and Portugal, the missionary project was funded by Catholic monarchs under the patronato real issued by the Pope to ensure Catholic missionary work was part of a broader project of conquest and colonization. Sahagún Bernardino de 1505?-1590. A religious philosophical anthropology — a vision of humanity — may shape a missionary's vision of human beings, and in turn the missionary's behavior on a cultural frontier. His field research activities can be grouped into an earlier period (1558–1561) and a later period (1561–1575). [13] The college contributed to the blending of Spanish and indigenous cultures in what is now Mexico. Sahagún was among the first to develop methods and strategies for gathering and validating knowledge of indigenous New World cultures. Bernardino de Sahagún.jpg 369 × 533; 95 KB Codice1548 chico.jpg 879 × 567; 435 KB Eleven scenes depicting childbirth, midwifery and care of th … It was published in 1583 by Pedro Ocharte, but circulated in New Spain prior to that in order to replace with Christian texts the songs and poetry of the Nahuas. Various delays enabled the author to continue revisions and additions for several years. [9] Concurrently, many of the friars were discontent with the corruption of European society, including, at times, the leadership of the Catholic Church. Though he was primarily devoted to his missionary task, his extraordinary work documenting their worldview and culture has earned him the title as “the first anthro… Il est donc connu comme Fray Bernardino de Sahagún. Ensayo de nomenclature e identificación de las lúminas 98 a 138 (núms. His zeal and pre-eminent ability in respect to the Indian language and religion attracted the attention of his superior, who directed him to compile in the Aztec language a compendium of all things relating to the native history and custom that might be useful in the labor of Christianizing the Indians. Sahagún, Bernardino de 1499-1590 O.F.M. Some passages reflect Sahagún's own narration of events or commentary. The pictures in the Primeros Memoriales convey a blend of indigenous and European artistic elements and influences. Sahagún's Historia general was unknown outside Spain for about two centuries. [2] Most of his writings reflect his Catholic missionary interests, and were designed to help churchmen preach in Nahuatl, or translate the Bible into Nahuatl, or provide religious instruction to indigenous peoples. He also became concerned about the tendency of his fellow Franciscan missionaries to misunderstand basic elements of traditional Aztec religious beliefs and cosmology. [43] Sahagún's 1585 revision of the conquest narrative, which included praise for Cortés and the Spanish conquest, was completed in a period when work on indigenous texts was under attack. Sahagun, Bernard de 1499-1590. Saint Francis developed and articulated this devotion based on his experiences of contemplative prayer in front the San Damiano Crucifix and the practice of compassion among lepers and social outcasts. Rooms at Hostal La Bastide du Chemin feature rustic décor and come with flat-screen TV and a private bathroom with free toiletries. 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